Studies in sheep have shown that renal excretion of sodium may be under osmoregulatory control. When sheep become dehydrated, or are infused intravenously with hypertonic saline, they increase renal Na excretion in addition to secreting vasopressin and developing a thirst. These natriuretic, antidiuretic, and dipsogenic responses to dehydration and hypertonicity can be greatly reduced by lowering the cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentration or by prior ablation of tissue in the anterior wall of the third ventricle. Lowering of cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentration also prevents postprandial natriuresis which normally occurs in association with a postprandial increase in plasma Na concentration and tonicity. We propose that there is a cerebral osmoregulatory control of Na excretion which may interact with volume influences from the cardiovascular system to regulate renal Na output. The effector mechanism from brain to kidney mediating such cerebral control of Na excretion is probably hormonal.