We studied Pourcelot's index (PI), which shows cerebral vascular resistance, in the anterior cerebral arteries and basilar artery, and the PI ratio (Pourcelot's index in the anterior cerebral artery/Pourcelot's index in the basilar artery) in 11 measurements of hydrocephalus. The mean values of PI in the anterior cerebral artery, basilar artery, and the PI ratio before treatment were significantly higher than those after treatment and those in normal infants. Before treatment, the mean PI in the anterior cerebral arteries was significantly higher than the mean PI in the basilar artery. All PI ratios increased to 1.00 or more. After treatment and in normal infants, the mean PI in the anterior cerebral arteries was significantly lower than the mean PI in the basilar artery. All PI ratios decreased to less than 1.00. We believe that the PI ratio is useful to evaluate the need or effect of treatment in hydrocephalus.