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Central and Peripheral Metabolic Defects Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Targeting Mitochondria for Diagnosis and Prevention

Authors
  • Peng, Yunhua
  • Gao, Peipei
  • Shi, Le
  • Chen, Lei
  • Liu, Jiankang
  • Long, Jiangang
Type
Published Article
Journal
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Publisher
Mary Ann Liebert
Publication Date
Apr 28, 2020
Volume
32
Issue
16
Pages
1188–1236
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1089/ars.2019.7763
PMID: 32050773
PMCID: PMC7196371
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Significance: Epidemiological studies indicate that metabolic disorders are associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolic remodeling occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery, even in the early stages of AD. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely accepted as a molecular mechanism underlying metabolic disorders. Therefore, focusing on early metabolic changes, especially from the perspective of mitochondria, could be of interest for early AD diagnosis and intervention. Recent Advances: We and others have identified that the levels of several metabolites are fluctuated in the periphery before their accumulation in the CNS, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Mitochondrial remodeling is likely one of the earliest signs of AD, linking nutritional imbalance to cognitive deficits. Notably, by improving mitochondrial function, mitochondrial nutrients efficiently rescue cellular metabolic dysfunction in the CNS and periphery in individuals with AD. Critical Issues: Peripheral metabolic disorders should be intensively explored and evaluated for the early diagnosis of AD. The circulating metabolites derived from mitochondrial remodeling represent novel potential diagnostic biomarkers for AD that are more readily detected than CNS-oriented biomarkers. Moreover, mitochondrial nutrients provide a promising approach to preventing and delaying AD progression. Future Directions: Abnormal mitochondrial metabolism in the CNS and periphery is involved in AD pathogenesis. More clinical studies provide evidence for the suitability and reliability of circulating metabolites and cytokines for the early diagnosis of AD. Targeting mitochondria to rewire cellular metabolism is a promising approach to preventing AD and ameliorating AD-related metabolic disorders.

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