A technique for demonstrating cement lines in thin, undecalcified, transverse sections of cortical bone has been developed. Cortical bone samples are processed and embedded undecalcified in methyl methacrylate plastic. After sectioning at 3-5 microns, cross-sections are transferred to a glass slide and flattened for 10 min. Sections of cortical bone are stained for 20 sec free-floating in a fresh solution of 1% toluidine blue dissolved in 0.1% formic acid. The section is dehydrated in t-butyl alcohol, cleared in xylene, and mounted with Eukitt's medium. Reversal lines appear as thin, scalloped, dark blue lines against a light blue matrix, whereas bone formation arrest lines are thicker with a smooth contour. With this technique cellular detail, osteoid differentiation, and fluorochrome labels are retained. Results demonstrate the applicability of a one-step staining method for cement lines which will facilitate the assessment of bone remodeling activity in thin sections of undecalcified cortical bone.