In vitro cultured plant cells, in particular the tobacco BY-2 cell, have demonstrated their potential to provide a promising bioproduction platform for therapeutic proteins by integrating the merits of whole-plant cultivation systems with those of microbial and mammalian cell cultures. Over the past three decades, substantial progress has been made in improving the plant cell culture system, resulting in a few commercial success cases, such as taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso®), the first FDA-approved recombinant pharmaceutical protein derived from plant cells. However, compared to the major expression hosts (bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells), plant cells are still largely underutilized, mainly due to low productivity and non-human glycosylation. Modern molecular biology tools, in particular RNAi and the latest genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9, have been used to modulate the genome of plant cells to create new cell lines that exhibit desired “traits” for producing therapeutic proteins. This review highlights the recent advances in cellular engineering of plant cells towards improved recombinant protein production, including creating cell lines with deficient protease levels or humanized glycosylation, and considers potential development in the future.