Motor dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease are believed to be primarily due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Numerous cell replacement therapy approaches have been developed and tested, including these based on donor cell transplantation (embryonic and adult tissue-derived), adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)-, neural stem cells (hNSCs)- and finally human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based. Despite the progress achieved, numerous difficulties prevent wider practical application of stem cell-based therapy approaches for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Among the latter, ethical, safety and technical issues stand out. Current series of reviews (Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease: I. Embryonic and adult donor tissue-based applications; II. Adult stem cell-based applications; III. Neonatal, fetal and embryonic stem cell-based applications; IV. Risks and future trends) aims providing a balanced and updated view on various issues associated with cell types (including stem cells) in regards to their potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Essential features of the individual cell subtypes, principles of available cell handling protocols, transplantation, and safety issues are discussed extensively.