The aim of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is to reconstruct local synapse formation and/or induce the release of dopamine and cytokines from grafted cells in the putamen. Fetal ventral-midbrain cells are reported to relieve the neurological symptoms of PD patients. However, not only embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but also induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to provide an alternative donor cell population because of their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. A protocol to generate dopaminergic (DA) neurons from ESCs and iPSCs has been developed, and human ESCs were proven to function in the brain of rat and monkey PD models. The next step will be the isolation of DA neurons as a donor cell population for a safe and efficient transplantation.