We studied peculiarities of cell reorganization of the gastric transplant during the delayed period after esophagoplasty for benign pathologies of the esophagus. Polymorphism of adaptive and pathological structural rearrangements in the mucosa of the gastric tube was observed. Degenerative and atrophic changes in epithelial structures, hypertrophy of smooth muscular components, and sclerotic reorganization of the stroma were predominating morphological phenomena. Heterogeneity of ultrastructural modifications of the epithelium reflected high secretory activity of foveal mucocytes in combination with degenerative changes in cytoplasmic organelles and impaired secretory function of fundic gland cells. Hypertrophied cells with minor ultrastructural changes, leiomyocytes with signs of biosynthesis, and degenerated smooth muscle fibers were revealed in the population of smooth muscle cells.