Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis and degenerative joint disease were cultured in the presence of native types I, II and III collagens and alpha chains from each of these types of collagen. The culture supernatant fluids were harvested and assayed for lymphocyte-derived chemotatic factor for monocytes. Reactions to one or more of the native collagens was found in 50 per cent (10 of 20) of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 20 per cent (two of 10) of the patients with gout and ankylosing spondylitis but in none of the 10 patients with degenerative joint disease or in normal subjects. Reaction to one or more alpha chains was found in 90 per cent (18 of 20) of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 60 per cent (six of 10) of the patients with gout, 50 per cent (five of 10) of the patients with ankylosing spondylitis, 30 per cent (three of 10) of the patients with degenerative joint disease and in 10 per cent of the normal subjects (one of 10). All the reactions were quantiatively stronger in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results indicate that patients with rheumatoid arthritis have cell-mediated immunity to homologous native and denatured collagens but that the reaction is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis. Some patients with gout, ankylosing spondylitis and degenerative joint disease also have low levels of immunity.