Abstract The identification of cells capable of neuronal differentiation has great potential for cellular therapies. We examined whether murine and human adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS) cells can be induced to undergo neuronal differentiation. We isolated ADAS cells from the adipose tissue of adult BalbC mice or from human liposuction tissue and induced neuronal differentiation with valproic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, insulin, and hydrocortisone. As early as 1–3 h after neuronal induction, the phenotype of ADAS cells changed towards neuronal morphology. Following neuronal induction, muADAS cells displayed immunocytochemical staining for GFAP, nestin and NeuN and huADAS cells displayed staining for intermediate filament M, nestin, and NeuN. Following neuronal induction of murine and human ADAS cells, Western blot analysis confirmed GFAP, nestin, and NeuN protein expression. Pretreatment with EGF and basic FGF augmented the neuronal differentiation of huADAS cells. The neuronal differentiation of stromal cells from adipose tissue has broad biological and clinical implications.