A critical determinant of organizational effectiveness is how individuals are treated. It affects both their well-being and organizational performance. This article is the third in a series of Organizational Dynamics journal articles that make the case for management and organization design approaches that treat individuals differently based on their preferences and capabilities. It points out how many of the human resource (HR) management systems of organizations can be individualized, as well as how the job design and leadership practices of an organization can and should be. Since the first article appeared in 1974, a great deal has changed. Organizations have become more individualized than they were 40 years ago, but many new and old opportunities to further individualize them exist and – if utilized – can make them more sustainably effective.