Abstract 1. 1. Two cases of intussusception of ileum through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct have been presented. In both cases the intussusception was reduced and the omphalomesenteric duct was excised. One infant survived while the other died in the early postoperative period as the result of severe preexisting cardiac failure, secondary to congenital heart disease. 2. 2. Thirty-five cases from the literature, including our two cases, have been analyzed with certain conclusions: 2.1. (a) Ileal intussusception through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct occurs predominantly in male infants. 2.2. (b) The intussusception most commonly takes place during the first four weeks of life and is often preceded for several days by the development of a fecal fistula in the region of the umbilicus. 2.3. (c) The over-all mortality of 89 per cent is misleading since most of the cases were reported prior to the development of modern therapeutic methods. 2.4. (d) The recently reported cases reveal a marked reduction in mortality. 3. 3. The importance of early operative intervention and active supportive measures is emphasized.