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cDNA-based gene mapping and GC3 profiling in the soft-shelled turtle suggest a chromosomal size-dependent GC bias shared by sauropsids.

Authors
  • Kuraku, Shigehiro
  • Ishijima, Junko
  • Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko
  • Agata, Kiyokazu
  • Kuratani, Shigeru
  • Matsuda, Yoichi
Type
Published Article
Journal
Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2006
Volume
14
Issue
2
Pages
187–202
Identifiers
PMID: 16544192
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Mammalian and avian genomes comprise several classes of chromosomal segments that vary dramatically in GC-content. Especially in chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content and a higher gene density than macrochromosomes. To understand the evolutionary history of the intra-genome GC heterogeneity in amniotes, it is necessary to examine the equivalence of this GC heterogeneity at the nucleotide level between these animals including reptiles, from which birds diverged. We isolated cDNAs for 39 protein-coding genes from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, and performed chromosome mapping of 31 genes. The GC-content of exonic third positions (GC3) of P. sinensis genes showed a heterogeneous distribution, and exhibited a significant positive correlation with that of chicken and human orthologs, indicating that the last common ancestor of extant amniotes had already established a GC-compartmentalized genomic structure. Furthermore, chromosome mapping in P. sinensis revealed that microchromosomes tend to contain more GC-rich genes than GC-poor genes, as in chicken. These results illustrate two modes of genome evolution in amniotes: mammals elaborated the genomic configuration in which GC-rich and GC-poor regions coexist in individual chromosomes, whereas sauropsids (reptiles and birds) refined the chromosomal size-dependent GC compartmentalization in which GC-rich genomic fractions tend to be confined to microchromosomes.

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