The Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection for the Development and Treatment of Gastric MALT Lymphomas Since 1983, it is well known that mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of the stomach is due to chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Many epidemiological, biological, and moleculargenetic studies have implicated the role of H. pylori in lymphomagenesis. Nowadays, more than 650 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma worldwide have been treated with antibiotics for H. pylori infection, achieving a complete remission in about 75% of cases. Clinical predictive factors help to stratify patients into risk groups, and help to predict the probability of lymphoma remission. New insights into cytogenetics have also contributed to the understanding of lymphomagenesis, and with the newly identified translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) we might have also a genetic factor at hand to predict treatment response.