Abstract A cDNA encoding bovine interleukin 10 (IL10) was cloned and sequenced using total cellular RNA derived from concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A cDNA was produced with reverse transcriptase using oligo(dT) primers, and was amplified using primers chosen from consensus regions of the mouse and human IL10 genes. The nucleotide sequence derived from this cDNA shares 84, 79 and 78% homology with the human, mouse and rat cDNAs, respectively. The deduced amino-acid sequence shares an overall 77, 71 and 74% homology with the human, mouse and rat IL10 proteins, respectively. Northern blot analysis of the bovine IL10 mRNA reveals expression of a single 1.8-kb transcript, reaching maximal levels between 8 and 24 h, in ConA-stimulated peripheral T-cells, and weak expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.