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O Kijevskim i Sinajskim listićima

Authors
Publisher
Old Church Slavonic Institute
Publication Date
Disciplines
  • Religious Science

Abstract

On Kiev and Sinai folia In this paper the author analyzes from a historic-liturgic point of view the oldest fragments of western and eastern liturgy: The Kiev (Ki) and Sinai (Si) folia. Six mass types of Ki contain universally human longings for eschatological values, only or. 17 asks for health, or. 20 for safety of the empire and or. 21 expects protection of the Church. This reflects the historical situation in Rome (Vandal and Langobard inroads in the fifth and the sixth centuries). The variable parts of the preface originate form the same period, when the celebrator improvised them freely. In their form and content they represent old prayers (oratio) and in their rhetoric elements (paralelism) they resemble laudatory speeches honoring saints or martyrs (Klement's preface). In Ki the eastern term nebeske sile (the powers of heaven) appears, denoting all saints or choirs of angels (or 10 title 7r, or 36, 37), as well as the expression of creation: otъ nebytiě bo vъ bytie sъtvorilъ ny esi (18, 4r) from the anafora and homily of St. John Chrysostom which is unknown to the western mass. Mass formularies of Ki from old Gregorian sacramentary with identical or similar titles but with a difference in content, which is due to improvisation, are contained in Pad D 47, Sangalenski No 348 and Missale Francorum (Cod. Vat. Reg. lat. 257, Mohlberg, LQ 1/2, 1939). By a special order of the most important mass types Ki takes the first place among the western type Old Church Slavonic liturgic manuals for missionaries. This is also confirmed by the alphabet. Namely, analogously to the contemporary Latin sacrametaries which in initials, titles and versal (distinctive) letters show the evolution of the Latin script, in Ki, especially in the parts written by its scribe A, three different letter types have been used: initials, capital letters in titles and letters used in the text itself. The initials correspond to Latin capitals, title letters correspond to rustic capitals with a discrete elongation of the vertical axes of Glagolitic letters but their morphology, corpus is identical to that of other letters in the text. They are of different sizes, they are adapted to the upper line (hanging letters), they have the same proportions and the same diction and they reflect the primarely stage which has evolved somewhat from that of Cyril's script. So the origin of Ki can be projected to the end of the tenth century. The palaeographic analysis of the first page of Ki, 1r (Ki2) and the annotated paschalies in Sinai liturgicon (Si2) justify Hamm's hypotheses that they have been written by the same hand. Research of the content of the first three prayers of Sinai liturgicon (Si), which did not have a Greek model, has revealed that the first prayer has the structure and content of western liturgic apologies of 9th-11th centuries but it has eastern terminology and theology (St. Peter, the head apostle). The second prayer, although only preserved in fragments, is identical to the Latin, Franco-Germanic prayer (10th century) which has been recited by the bishop or the abbot during the adoration of the Cross on Good Friday. The third prayer follows the undressing of liturgic clothes. Western sacramentaries give instructions for such orations from the ninth century, but they do not include the text of the prayer. In the east they have been confirmed from the fourteenth century. The annotated paschalies (Si2) cite 19 dates of terminus paschalies, days of the full moon, when according to the Jewish calendar Christ died. The same hand has written Ki2, The Letter of Paul to the Romans 13, 11-14; 14, 1-4 which is read on Quinquagesima Sunday and which suggests the program for lent. An old Latin prayer to St. Mary with the eastern invitation: Pomolim sę (Let us pray) follows. It is known from Latin codices under the title "Super populum" and it is the last prayer in the Roman ritual (D 47, 389) and the first prayer in the Ambrosian read on Lady-day (25t March). Linguistic, graphic, ortographic and palaeographic elements indicate that the first side of Ki2 has been written somewhere in the South-Croatian area. In Sinai liturgicon the names of the dead who were to be mentioned in liturgy were written in Cyrillic letters in a little flag above Basil's prayer. This names in Si3 are of the western type, they have the ortography of the Zeta-Hum school instaed of the borrowed Glagolitic letters đerv and pe. Cyrillic annotations in the Leipzig lectionary also from the fifteenth century, which originated in the environs of Dubrovnik (Brgat). A series of names in Si3 is also connected with this area through the female name Petruniê, as the relics of St. Petronila are preserved and honored from the tenth century in Dubrovnik, and the cult of St. Petronila has spread throughout the area of Dubrovnik diocese. Ki represents the oldest Old Church Slavonic liturgic monument as a part of the oldest Gregorian Sacramentary with the eastern vocabulary and phrases, and Si represents the oldest eastern liturgy interwoven with the prayers from the contemporary western spiritually. Younger annotations to Ki2, Si2, 3 from the end of the eleventh or the beginning of the twelfth centuries bear witness to the use of Ki and Si in the borderland which was at that time heterogeneous as were Dubrovnik Astareja and Pelješac peninsula with its Hum hinterland.

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