Pruritus is a common and disabling symptom for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Many topical and systemic treatments have been used for uremic pruritus, mostly in anecdotal reports. A recent case series demonstrated that topical tacrolimus ointment 0.03% had a significant antipruritic effect for patients with uremia. In an attempt to confirm these findings, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study to assess the efficacy of tacrolimus ointment 0.1% for the treatment of hemodialysis-related pruritus. The results of this study do not demonstrate that tacrolimus ointment 0.1% is more effective than vehicle in relieving uremic pruritus.