Abstract Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP, EC 18.104.22.168) hydrolyzes neuropeptides, such as neurotensin and substance P in vitro, but its importance in the in vivo metabolism of these peptides has not been proved. This is the first report where intracerebral microdialysis combined with highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been used to investigate the effect of PREP inhibition on the brain extracellular peptide levels in conscious rats. We show that PREP inhibition by KYP-2047 (50μmol/kg=17mg/kg, intraperitoneally, that effectively inhibits PREP in the brain), has no effect on the neurotensin and substance P levels in the striatum extracellular space. This provides a further piece of evidence in support of the proposition that PREP is not significantly responsible for the in vivo cleavage of substance P or neurotensin, and that occasional positive cognitive effects associated with some PREP inhibitors are not mediated through elevated extracellular levels of these peptides. Direct regulation of peptide processing by PREP is not likely because the enzyme is located intracellularly and the peptide substrates are mostly extracellular.