The association between CD4 cell count and duration of virus load suppression was investigated in 558 patients in the Frankfurt HIV Clinic Cohort who had begun highly active antiretroviral therapy and who had virus load declines to </=500 copies/mL. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated viral rebound in 42.5% of patients by 24 weeks and in 64.3% by 84 weeks. Risk of viral rebound was independently associated with baseline and changes from baseline CD4 cell count. The achieved CD4 cell count was the most important factor for prediction of viral rebound (relative hazard, 5.4 for an updated CD4 cell count of <20 vs. >500 copies/mL; P=.0001). Baseline virus load was not associated with virus load rebound. Lower baseline CD4 cell counts were associated with increased risk of viral rebound; however, this risk was significantly reduced in persons with low baseline CD4 cell counts who experienced substantial increases in CD4 cell counts during follow-up.