The CD11/CD18 complex of leukocyte adhesion molecules has been shown to bind LPS on the surface of gram negative bacteria and LPS-coated erythrocytes (J. Exp. Med. 164:1876, 1986). LPS elicits several responses in leukocytes including secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, and priming for enhanced release of oxygen radicals such as superoxide anion. To determine if expression of CD18 molecules is necessary for these effects of LPS, we have examined the responses of leukocytes from CD18-deficient patients. Three of the patients in this study are characterized for the first time here, and three were described elsewhere. Monocytes and macrophages from CD18-deficient patients synthesized normal amounts of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in response to LPS. Further, PMN and monocytes from CD18-deficient patients showed normal priming for enhanced release of superoxide anion in response to LPS. Although a small contribution of CD18 molecules to some responses cannot be ruled out by our data, we may conclude that CD18 molecules are not essential for cellular responses to LPS.