Abstract We previously showed that mammalian FSH stimulates the proliferation of newt spermatogonia and induces their differentiation into primary spermatocytes in vitro. In the current study, to examine a possibility that stem cell factor (SCF) is involved in the proliferation of newt spermatogonia and/or their differentiation into primary spermatocytes, human recombinant SCF (rhSCF) was added to organ culture of testicular fragments. rhSCF was found to stimulate the spermatogonial proliferation and the spermatogonia progressed to the seventh generation that is the penultimate stage before primary spermatocyte stage. However, the spermatogonia did not differentiate into primary spermatocytes, but instead died of apoptosis. These results indicate that rhSCF promotes the proliferation of newt spermatogonia, but not the initiation of meiosis.