Common gynecologic conditions and surgeries may vary significantly by race or ethnicity. Uterine fibroid tumors are more prevalent in black women, and black women may have larger, more numerous fibroid tumors that cause worse symptoms and greater myomectomy complications. Some, but not all, studies have found a higher prevalence of endometriosis among Asian women. Race and ethnicity are also associated with hysterectomy rate, route, and complications. Overall, the current literature has significant deficits in the identification of racial and ethnic disparities in the incidence of fibroid tumors, endometriosis, and hysterectomy. Further research is needed to better define racial and ethnic differences in these conditions and to examine the complex mechanisms that may result in associated health disparities.