Abstract This study tested predictions concerning the associations between children's nonparental care experiences and emotion regulation. It involved 53 participants (21 girls and 32 boys) of preschool age and their mothers. The children's care experiences ranged from those who were raised exclusively at home to those who had nonparental care experience beginning in early infancy. The participants were observed in a laboratory playroom, and their mothers were asked to complete questionnaires regarding their children's care histories and their current care situations. The children with extensive nonparental care backgrounds were found to be more likely to use self-directed emotion regulation behaviors when faced with a mildly frustrating situation. In the same situation, the children who had experienced minimal nonparental care were found to be more likely to use other-directed emotion regulation behaviors. Additionally, the children who had experienced care settings with large numbers of children in each care group or who had experienced many caregiver changes were more likely to use self-directed emotion regulation behaviors, whereas those who had experienced settings with smaller care groups and fewer caregiver changes were more likely to use other-directed emotion regulation behaviors.