Coal and limestone are the two important natural resources abundant in Meghalaya. These two minerals have been extracted substantially during last few decades and have been contributing significantly to the employment and income in the state. But the rising extraction over time has raised concern about the sustainability of the progress of the area as the extraction has been going on not for any kind of local industrial development where employment may be generated further and progress would be accelerated. These are mined only to export and earn money without much value addition. Hence an attempt is made to comparatively study the nature of extraction of these two valuable resources and their future possible consequences with respect to the development of the state.