Abstract Dermatoglyphs are polygenetically determined epidermal ridge configurations on the fingers, palms and soles. An analysis of the digito-palmar dermatoglyphics obtained from 69 pairs of same-sex twins (32 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic) was performed in the population of Kosovo. Qualitative traits on the fingers (whorls, arches, radial and ulnar loops) and palms (pattern frequencies in the thenar/I, II, III and IV interdigital areas and hypothenar, the frequencies of positions of axial triradius) of both hands were analysed. The homolateral and heterolateral concordance of dermatoglyphic patterns between twin pairs were calculated for the monozygotic and dizygotic twins separately. The estimates of heritability for qualitative dermatoglyphic traits and the impacts of twin's shared (c2) and non-shared (individual) environments (e2) were presented. According to our results, the heritability patterns sharply distinguish highly heritable dermatoglyphic traits (patterns on the thenar and I interdigital area, II interdigital area and all the digits) and the traits with weak genetic component (patterns on the III and IV interdigital area, the hypothenar and the axial triradius position). In addition, the concordance and the heritability estimates in twins correspond to the embryonic growth of fingers (from the first to the fifth finger) and palm patterns (the II interdigital area). Based on findings presented here, we expect that the noxious environmental factors (possibly causing diseases later in life) would leave traces on the dermatoglyphs, which could be recognized as the increased dissimilarity of the twins (and other relatives) in the III and IV interdigital area, hypothenar, and in axial triradius position.