There is a growing body of research examining psychosocial aspects of diabetes. Relatively few studies, however, have investigated a theoretical framework to help integrate empirical knowledge. This study tested the utility of an expanded health belief model for explaining regimen adherence among Type II Diabetes patients. Furthermore, the study examined differences between Maltese Australian people and Anglo-Saxon Australian people. A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 147 people with Type II Diabetes who attended Diabetes Australia in Sunshine, Western Metropolitan Melbourne. The questionnaire measured adherence to diabetes medication, dietary treatment adherence, adherence to home blood glucose monitoring, 'perceived susceptibility and severity of diabetes and its complications', 'perceived benefits and barriers to carrying out treatment', 'health locus of control', 'attitudes toward doctors', 'beliefs about food', and demographic factors. Health beliefs predicted dietary treatment adherence. There were predictive relationships found between health beliefs and ethnic differences were evident. A new 'Diabetes Dietary Adherence Model' emerged from the findings, which may assist in re-directing patient education programs.