The spherical valve plate/cylinder block pair has the advantages of strong overturning resistance and large bearing area. However, the configurations of the unloading and pre-boosting triangular grooves on the spherical valve plate are different from those in the planar valve plate, resulting in special cavitation phenomenon on the spherical port plate pair. In order to study cavitation characteristics of spherical port plate pair, a dynamic CFD model of the piston pump including turbulence model, cavitation model and fluid compressibility is established. A detailed UDF compilation scheme is provided for modelling of the micron-sized spherical oil film mesh, which makes up for the lack of research on the meshing of the spherical oil film. In this paper, using CFD simulation tools, from the perspectives of pressure field, velocity field and gas volume fraction change, a detailed analysis of the transient evolution of the submerged cavitation jet in a axial piston pump with spherical valve plate is carried out. The study indicates the movement direction of the cavitation cloud cluster through the cloud image and the velocity vector direction of the observation point. The sharp decrease of velocity and gas volume fraction indicates the collapse phenomenon of bubbles on the part wall surface. These discoveries verify the special erosion effect in case of the spherical valve plate/cylinder block pair. The submerged cavitation jet generated by the unloading triangular grooves distributed on the spherical valve plate not only cause denudation of the inner wall surface of the valve plate, but also cause strong impact and denudation on the lower surface of the cylinder body. Finally, the direction of the unloading triangular groove was modified to extend the distance between it and the wall surface which can effectively alleviate the erosion effect.