Metal oxide-based memristors are promising candidates for breaking through the limitations in data storage density and transmission efficiency in traditional von Neumann systems, owing to their great potential in multi-state data storage and achievement of the in-memory neuromorphic computing paradigm. Currently, the resistive switching behavior of those is mainly ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments or paths formed by the migration of cations from electrodes or oxygen vacancies in oxides. However, due to the relatively low stability and endurance of the cations from electrodes, and the high mobility and weak immunity of oxygen vacancies, intermediate resistance states can be hardly retained for multilevel or synaptic resistive switching. Herein, we reviewed the memristors based on cationic interstitials which have been overlooked in achieving digital or analog resistive switching processes. Both theoretical calculations and experimental works have been surveyed, which may provide reference and inspiration for the rational design of multifunctional memristors, and will promote the increments in the memristor fabrications.