A patient with no known underlying immunosuppressive disorder who developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is described. A review of the English literature revealed ten other presumably nonimmunosuppressed patients with invasive aspergillosis. All had evidence of necrotizing pneumonitis with frequent cavity formation. Nine of the 11 patients died without the diagnosis of aspergillosis having been entertained. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis does occur in the nonimmunosuppressed host and should be considered when an etiologic agent is not readily identified in a patient with rapidly progressive diffuse necrotizing pneumonitis.