Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is a rare, multisystem, bone marrow failure disease characterized by abnormalities such as in the skin, mucosa, nervous system, and lungs. Here we report a rare case of presumed DKC causing total retinal detachment in the right eye and severe peripheral retinal vascular occlusion in the left eye. A 3-year-old boy was presented with vitreous hemorrhage and total retinal detachment in the right eye and was scheduled to undergo vitreous surgery in the right eye and detailed ophthalmologic examination of the left eye under general anesthesia. Since a systemic examination revealed anemia and marked thrombocytopenia, he underwent a detailed pediatric examination. Although genetic testing revealed no significant pathologic mutations, the presence of shortened telomere length and other clinical findings suggested the possibility of DKC. His right eye had severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and retinal reattachment was not achieved with vitreous surgery, thus resulting in phthisis bulbi. The left eye showed a wide retinal avascular area in the temporal retina, retinal neovascularization, and hard exudates on fluorescein fundus angiography and was treated with laser photocoagulation using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscopic photocoagulator. Following laser surgery, the new blood vessels regressed, and the visual acuity was maintained at 1.0. The findings in this rare case indicate that DKC can cause severe retinal vascular occlusion, thus leading to vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment. Therefore, early detection with fundus examination and early treatment with photocoagulation are important.