A case-control study was carried out to evaluate risk factors for clinical mastitis occurring in dairy heifers between 1 and 14 d postpartum. Case and control heifers were matched on herd; the control was the heifer that calved closest in time, before or after, the particular case. Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. The final multivariate model included 339 case-control pairs. Blood in the milk, udder edema, teat edema, and milk leakage, all recorded at the time of parturition, were significant risk factors. Purchased heifers and heifers with skin lesions between udder and thigh were not at increased risk of clinical mastitis. Separate analysis of a subgroup of case-control pairs identified teat edema, blood in the milk, and milk leakage at calving as risk factors for clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.