We reported a 27-year-old man, who had inhaled toluene vapor for 11 years and developed both polyneuropathy and myopathy. He gradually developed progressive muscular weakness in the limbs 2 months after the last inhalation and became nonambulant. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant muscular weakness and hypoactive deep tendon reflexes, especially in the legs. The cranial nerves were intact and neither sensory disturbances nor cerebellar signs were observed. Laboratory studies demonstrated mildly elevated serum CK value, but serum electrolytes and urinalysis were normal. Electromyogram showed a neurogenic pattern in the limbs and also a myogenic in the gastrocnemius muscle. Motor nerve conduction velocities were delayed in the limbs. The sural nerve biopsy specimens showed demyelination, myelin avoids, and axonal swelling compatible with toxic neuropathy. The muscle biopsy of the gastrocnemius revealed necrotic muscle fibers, vacuolated muscle fibers, phagocytosis, a disordered intermyofibrillary network, and small group atrophy on light microscopy. On electron microscopy, two outstanding findings were observed; the first, dilatation and proliferation of the membrane system, and the second, appearance of irregular membrano lamellar structures and vacuoles associated with abnormal membrane system. These histological findings suggest that toluene may affect directly the membrane system of muscle fibers and consequently induce rhabdomyolysis.