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Carvedilol stereopharmacokinetics in rats: affinities to blood constituents and tissues.

Authors
  • Stahl, E
  • Mutschler, E
  • Baumgartner, U
  • Spahn-Langguth, H
Type
Published Article
Journal
Archiv der Pharmazie
Publication Date
Sep 01, 1993
Volume
326
Issue
9
Pages
529–533
Identifiers
PMID: 7902078
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Carvedilol, a lipophilic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with vasodilating activities, is characterized by a high as well as stereoselective metabolic clearance and distribution volume. Tissue distribution of carvedilol enantiomers and their conjugates were determined under steady-state conditions in rats (p.o., 10 mg/kg, repetitive dosage; n = 5) and after single i.v. administration in control rats and rats with surgical portacaval shunt (pcs) (10 mg/kg; n = 3 each group). In addition, in vitro plasma protein binding was evaluated. The plasma protein binding of carvedilol in rats is > 98% for total plasma (tp) and > 96% for rat serum albumin (rsa) solution (4%), with enantioselectivity ratios of 1.53 (tp) and 1.27 (rsa). Significantly higher unbound fractions were observed in pcs rats, in part due to reduced protein concentrations. In contrast to plasma, where a preponderance of the R-enantiomer with an S/R ratio of 0.6 was found, S-carvedilol was predominant in all tissues (heart, liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, muscle, and adipose tissue), with S/R ratios of 1.3-1.4 in most of these tissues and 2.3 in liver. This preferential tissue partitioning of S-carvedilol was in accordance with its higher unbound fraction in plasma. Carvedilol accumulated predominantly in the highly perfused and/or eliminating organs liver, kidneys, and lung (tissue/plasma ratios; lung: S 76, R 34; liver: S 21, R 5; kidney: S 8, R 3). A similarly enantioselective distribution into the heart of control as well as pcs rats was observed, where the S-enantiomer concentrations exceeded the plasma concentrations 7-fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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