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Cardiovascular diseases in obstructive sleep apnea.

Authors
  • 1
Type
Published Article
Journal
Tuberkuloz ve toraks
Publication Date
Volume
54
Issue
4
Pages
382–396
Identifiers
PMID: 17203427
Source
Medline

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 5% of women and 15% of men in the middle-aged adults, and associated with adverse health outcomes. Cardiovascular disturbances are the most serious complications of OSA. These complications include heart failure, left/right ventricular dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, stroke, systemic and pulmonary hypertension. All these cardiovascular complications increase morbidity and mortality of OSA. Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that sleep related breathing disorders are an independent risk factor for hypertension, probably resulting from a combination of intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, arousals, increased sympathetic activity, and altered baroreflex control during sleep. Arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (CAD) which are independent predictors of left ventricular dysfunction, often have co-existence with OSA. Especially severe OSA patients having diastolic dysfunction might have an increased risk of heart failure, since diastolic dysfunction might be combined with systolic dysfunction. Early recognition and appropriate therapy of ventricular dysfunction is advisable to prevent further progression to heart failure and death. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, especially if they had apneas and hypoxemia without evident heart failure should be evaluated for sleep disorders. So, patients with CAD should be evaluated for OSA and vice versa. Early recognition and treatment of OSA may improve cardiovascular functions. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) applied by nasal mask, is still the gold standard method for treatment of the disease and prevention of complications.

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