Anemia is a frequently encountered problem of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and deteriorates as renal function declines. Anemia increases the risk of death in CKD patients with diabetes and hypertension, which are the 2 leading causes of CKD. Recent studies suggest that correction of anemia improves patient quality of life and may delay the progression to end-stage renal disease. Anemia is often only treated in the late stages of CKD or after the initiation of renal replacement therapy. Thus, anemia of CKD is often unnoticed and lacks appropriate treatment. To practically manage high-risk patients with CKD and its associated cardiovascular diseases, it is mandatory to diagnose and appropriately treat anemia of CKD earlier. The optimal level of hemoglobin for greatest clinical benefit is unclear, but at present, it is recommended to remain > or = 11 g/dL. This paper provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of anemia associated with CKD based on international practice guidelines.