Eight children aged 2-9 years, with signs and symptoms of severe scorpion envenoming by Tityus serrulatus were studied. All patients showed clinical manifestations of cardiac dysfunction, with ECG and echocardiographic alteration and five developed pulmonary edema. Troponin I levels were normal in all patients on admission, except for two who arrived later, and increased thereafter, with maximum values being observed 24-36 h after the sting. The detection of TnI in patients with severe scorpion envenoming, and the observed temporal pattern and serum levels meet the criteria established for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The rapid reversibility of cardiac dysfunction, together with the normalization of the enzymatic, ECG and echocardiographic data, indicates the occurrence of an acute myocardial lesion without underlying or associated coronary disease.