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Caracterização petrográfica, geoquímica e mineralógica do arenito da Formação Marília e processos de alteração

  • Coelho, Carla Vanessa de Sousa
Publication Date
Mar 30, 2017
Repositório Institucional UNESP
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Field observation, petrography, geochemistry and mineralogy in two weathered soil profiles of the sandstones from Member Serra da Galga, Marilia Formation, were used to evaluate the possible genetic relation between the lateritic material and the soils enriched in aluminous clays (refractory clays). The study focus was an Oxisol-Gleysol system present in the surface of the sedimentary plateau. The Oxisol outcrop, with ferruginous duricrust, is situated on the edge of the plateau and the Gleysol, where the aluminous clay is concentrated, is located in the hydromorphic topographic depression. The petrographical facies show that the ferruginous duricrust is authochthonous, formed in the saprolitic level of the sandstone. The current dismantling of this horizon is associated with the partial deferruginization due to humidity increase. The pisolitic structure is recognized both in the Oxysol profile and Gleysol, after deferruginization. The kaolinite and gibbsite association prevails in all depth of both profiles, albeit kaolinite is more significant in deeper depths and gibbsite in the superficial layers. Deferruginization is a process that accompanies groundwater level rise, might develop mottled horizons at the Oxysol base or forming white horizons at the Gleysol in which the aluminum is concentrated. The aluminum enrichment is associated with the dessilicification, possibly related with decrease in pH and the kaolinite destabilization. Quartz, rare tourmaline, kyanite, zircon and rutile minerals make up the phase of minerals resistant to chemical weathering. Goethite is the dominant iron oxide, outcome of a hydrated environment. The flat shape of the plateau, which corresponds to the South American Surface described by King (1956), under appropriate and prolonged weather conditions, favored the formation of the hard ferruginous coverage. After the end of sedimentary deposition, in early Paleocene (approximately 65 million years BP), the surface was truncated by long erosion periods that flattened the relief. Currently the weather is tropical with strong seasonality and humidity increase. This new hydrological condition, saturated, combined with stable tectonic conditions and sparse vegetation exerts influence in leaching and loss of iron in the aluminous clay horizon. The results suggests that is possible the formation of a aluminous material from a ferruginous duricrust, proposing an autochthonous hypothesis for the development of the aluminous clays.

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