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Caracterização da matéria orgânica do solo e sua influência nas propriedades físico-químicas no sistema Latossolo-Gleissolo

  • Amendola, Danilo Furlan
Publication Date
Sep 20, 2017
Repositório Institucional UNESP
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The region of western Minas Gerais has great national economic importance, has excellent mineral potential and is an important pole of agribusiness. Its importance for Brazil is not recent, the west of Minas Gerais, as well as the entire state of Minas Gerais, is also of great historical importance, from the extraction of gold in colonial times, to the present day, with diferente types of mining. Limestone and refractory clay are important mineral assets exploited for decades, being associated to the sedimentary rocks of the Marília formation, which supports the relief of the sedimentary plains present there. The studied catena is located on the top of one of these plains, located between the cities of Uberaba and Uberlândia, and is composed of three profiles, T1P1 (upstream), T1P2 (half slope) and T1P3 (downstream) the transition between Oxisols and Gleissolos. Chemical, physical and mineralogical analyzes were made to characterize the transition between the two types of soil that compose Catena. The fractionation of the organic matter indicated that the particulate organic matter, present in the sand fraction, is still very significant and contributes to increase the calculation of the total organic carbon in the environment. The Ki index, which shows the degree of weathering, indicates a predominantly gibbsite character in all portions of the Catena soil. The Scanning Electron Microscopy indicates the presence of aluminum in the form of hydroxide, Gibbsite, agreeing with the gibbsitic character printed by the Ki index. The results of the Fourier transform Infrared analysis point to the presence of organic acids whose composition is given by weak carboxylic acids and polysaccharides. When correlated, the results point to a mineral rich in Gibbsite presenting aluminous enrichment characteristic of the hydromorphic areas. Hydromorphic areas make up a total of 6% or 2.1 million square kilometers of the earth's surface and are important reservoirs of organic carbon, and are very important in the climate maintenance of planet Earth. Their study is important because of the accelerated decline in area of these environments globally. The study of the carbon associated to the soil is important because the soil is able to accumulate up to four times more carbon than the vegetal biomass and up to three times more carbon than the atmosphere. Locally, in the study area, the organic carbon content tends to decrease towards the base of the studied profiles and increase, approximately 8 times, downstream of Catena, in the region of the Glei soils.

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