In addition to the well-characterized GTP-dependent nuclear transport observed in permeabilized cells, we detected a mode of nuclear transport that was GTP-independent at elevated cytoplasmic calcium concentrations. Nuclear transport under these conditions was blocked by calmodulin inhibitors. Recombinant calmodulin restored ATP-dependent nuclear transport in the absence of cytosol. Calmodulin-dependent transport was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin consistent with transport proceeding through nuclear pores. We propose that release of intracellular calcium stores upon cell activation inhibits GTP-dependent nuclear transport; the elevated cytosolic calcium then acts through calmodulin to stimulate the novel GTP-independent mode of import.