In this report, we propose new International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes that could be incorporated into computer-based patient records or administrative data to monitor and improve diabetes care. Neither the ICD, 9th Revision, nor its imminent replacement, the ICD, 10th Revision, has specific codes for foot examinations and funduscopic examinations in the asymptomatic person, high-risk diabetic foot status, or clinically significant macular edema. Adoption of official codes for these procedures and conditions implemented in conjunction with computerized databases could be used for surveillance, program planning, and quality of care assessment. Computerized medical records could use the codes to monitor care and issue reminders to patients and providers. Payors could offer reimbursement incentives to encourage compliance with standard recommendations. These codes for care procedures could be linked to outcomes, such as amputations and blindness, to improve our understanding of the etiology of blindness and the relationship between process and outcome. The uniform adoption of these codes would facilitate comparison between health care systems, geographic regions, and nations. The diabetes community should encourage the National Center for Health Statistics to adopt new codes that could be used to monitor diabetes preventive care practices.