On the basis of studying the calibration method of the camera and the rotating platform, we designed an automatic camera calibration scheme based on four azimuth circles, which can realize the automatic sorting of the mark points. In order to improve the efficiency of identifying the center of the calibration plate, this paper uses RANSAC to improve the RED ellipse center detection algorithm. Experimental verification shows that the improved RED algorithm has increased 29.34% in anti-noise interference ability and 30.10% in center detection accuracy, which effectively guarantees the measurement stability and accuracy of the measurement system. Then, with the aid of the designed calibration board, we fit the rotation center of the turntable using the principle of three points in a circle, which provides a basis for the subsequent point cloud splicing. Experiments show that the back-projection error of the calibration method in this paper is less than 1 pixel, and the calibration accuracy is better than Zhang’s algorithm.