Uranium (U) is a non-essential and toxic element that is taken up by plants from the environment. The assimilation pathway of U is still unknown in plants. In this study, we provide several evidences that U is taken up by the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana through Ca2+-permeable cation channels. First, we showed that deprivation of Arabidopsis plants with calcium induces a 1.5-fold increase in the capacity of roots to accumulate U, suggesting that calcium deficiency promotes the radionuclide import pathway. Second, we showed that external calcium inhibits U accumulation in roots, suggesting a common route for the uptake of both cations. Third, we found that gadolinium, nifedipine and verapamil inhibit the absorption of U, suggesting that different types of Ca2+-permeable channels serve as a route for U uptake. Last, we showed that U bioaccumulation in Arabidopsis mutants deficient for the Ca2+-permeable channels MCA1 and ANN1 is decreased by 40%. This suggests that MCA1 and ANN1 contribute to the absorption of U in different zones and cell layers of the root. Together, our results describe for the first time the involvement of Ca2+-permeable cation channels in the cellular uptake of U. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.