Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) augment the healing of bone following craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery. Their ability to function as bone substitutes has accelerated the healing processes from bone fractures or defects. Although CPCs all possess the same general function, small chemical composition differences in these compounds have a profound impact on their in vivo character. The main purpose of this article is to report the differences of several major CPCs. When available, specific clinical trials are referenced. The goal is to expand the knowledge base on CPCs to better inform the clinician and researcher.