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Calcium ion regulation of chirality of beating flagellum of reactivated sea urchin spermatozoa.

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Abstract

Near an interface, sea urchin spermatozoa swim almost in circles. The direction is usually clockwise at the lower surface of a coverslip and counterclockwise at the upper surface of a glass slide, when viewed from above. Examination of demembranated spermatozoa has shown that Ca2+ regulates the direction of the circular motion of spermatozoa reactivated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This finding suggests that Ca2+ changes the chirality of the three-dimensional bending waves of sperm flagella.

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