The effect of calcium and magnesium ions on the oxygen equilibrium of Eisenia hemoglobin was investigated by using an automatic oxygenation apparatus. On addition of calcium chloride (20 mM, pH 7.5), oxygen affinity and cooperativity (nmax) of the hemoglobin increased markedly (p 50:3.82 mmHg, nmax :9.76). The effect of magnesium on the oxygen equilibrium was weaker than that of calcium. The top asymptotes of the oxygen equilibrium curve shifted to the left by adding cations whereas the bottom asymptotes remained almost unchanged. The free energy of heme-heme interaction (delta GR,T) also increased remarkably. These results imply the binding of calcium to Eisenia hemoglobin in the oxygenated form and its physiological role in modulating the oxygen affinity and cooperativity.