The effects of caffeine and diazepam on several mood, cognitive, learning, memory, and psychomotor tasks were investigated in a double-blind study of 108 young healthy adults who were randomly assigned to nine treatments; oral administration of caffeine (0, 3 and 6 mg/kg), diazepam (0, 0.15, and 0.30 mg/kg) and their combinations. Subjects completed a battery of tasks once before and twice after administration of the drugs. Caffeine alone showed no effects on cognitive, learning, and memory performance, but impaired fine motor coordination and increased anxiety and tenseness. Diazepam alone produced sedation, lowered other ratings of subjective moods, and impaired cognitive, learning, and memory performance. The two drugs did not antagonize the effects of each other, except in the symbol cancellation task.