At the cellular level, cadmium (Cd) induces both damaging and repair processes in which the cellular redox status plays a crucial role. Being not redox-active, Cd is unable to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly, but Cd-induced oxidative stress is a common phenomenon observed in multiple studies. The current review gives an overview on Cd-induced ROS production and anti-oxidative defense in organisms under different Cd regimes. Moreover, the Cd-induced oxidative challenge is discussed with a focus on damage and signaling as downstream responses. Gathering these data, it was clear that oxidative stress related responses are affected during Cd stress, but the apparent discrepancies observed in between the different studies points towards the necessity to increase our knowledge on the spatial and temporal ROS signature under Cd stress. This information is essential in order to reveal the exact role of Cd-induced oxidative stress in the modulation of downstream responses under a diverse array of conditions.