Abstract Plasma exchange is widely accepted to remove pathogenic substances from patients' blood that cannot be eliminated otherwise like cholesterol in severe forms of familial hypercholesterolaemia or immunoglobulins and circulating immune complexes (CIC) in many autoimmune disorders. But dilution of other plasma proteins, as well as side effects and costs of substitution fluids, limit its efficiency. In immunoadsorption, the pathogen is bound specifically, generally no substitution fluids are needed and plasma can be conducted over the immunoadsorption columns as often as needed to achieve any reduction that one aims at, in some instances below the detection limit (e.g. HLA-antibodies in transplantations). The frequency of aphaereses is determined by the speed of the patients' improvement and the rebound of the eliminated substance, which can in some disorders be slowed down or stopped by concomitant immunosuppression. Generally, immunoadsorption is used in patients, where less expensive and demanding treatment options have failed, like severe hypercholesterolaemia, autoimmune disorders or hyperviscosity syndromes.