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Paraspecific protection by elapid and sea snake antivenins

Authors
Journal
Toxicon
0041-0101
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
5
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/0041-0101(67)90118-3

Abstract

Abstract Seventeen elapid antivenins and one sea snake antivenin were tested for neutralizing activity against a panel of fifteen elapid venom samples (eight Naja, three Bungarus, one each of Ophiophagus, Hemachatus, Walterinnesia and Micrurus) and one sea snake ( Enhydrina) sample. Assays were made by injecting mice subcutaneously with 2–10 ld 50 of venom and injecting antivenin intravenously immediately thereafter. Antivenins against venoms of certain Australian snakes (tiger snake, death adder, taipan) protected animals against at least fifteen of the venoms used. Tiger Snake Antivenene neutralized ten of the venoms at a dose of 10 ld 50. Sea Snake Antivenene showed at least some protective effect against fourteen of the fifteen elapid venoms used, but most elapid antivenins failed to neutralize sea snake venom. Cobra antivenins proved largely genus specific and showed considerable variation in neutralizing capacity. Venoms of Naja n. atra and N. nigricollis were less well neutralized than other cobra venoms. Krait antivenins were relatively ineffective even in homologous systems. Coral snake ( Micrurus fulvius) venom proved very difficult to neutralize. Certain implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions made for utilizing the paraspecific effect of elapid antivenins in clinical situations.

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