We establish a novel correspondence between the spacetime correlators of onedimensional (1D) N-particle classical stochastic models described by a Langevin equation with that of the ground-state dynamics of a class of integrable 1D interacting many-body quantum models of the supersymmetric elliptic $1/r^2$ type. We show that these seemingly different concepts of stochastic systems, supersymmetry and quantum integrability can be viewed in a unified framework. Starting with an $N \times N$ Lax matrix, we show that row (column) sums driven by a Gaussian noise term may be interpreted as a set of forward (backward) Langevin equations. Then, following functional path integral methods of stochastic quantization, we straightforwardly find an associated supersymmetric 1D quantum Hamiltonian. If, further, the classical stochastic system consists of two-body interactions only and we also want the quantum interactions to be of two-body type, we find that the only class of interactions permissible for the quantum models corresponds to the elliptic $1/r^2$ models. The algebraic structure that emerges very naturally reproduces the proof of integrability and allows the identification of the ground-state wavefunction of these quantum models.